Voyage of Mercy cover

Voyage of Mercy

The USS Jamestown, the Irish Famine, and the Remarkable Story of America’s First Humanitarian Mission 

In his latest book, Voyage of Mercy, author and historian Stephen Puleo details the remarkable story of the mission that inspired America to donate massive relief to Ireland during the potato famine, which sparked America’s tradition of providing humanitarian aid around the world.

More than 5,000 ships left Ireland during the great potato famine in the late 1840s, transporting the starving and the destitute away from their stricken homeland. The first vessel to sail in the other direction, to help the millions unable to escape, was the USS Jamestown, a converted warship, which left Boston in March 1847 loaded with precious food for Ireland.

In an unprecedented move by Congress, the warship had been placed in civilian hands, stripped of its guns, and committed to the peaceful delivery of food, clothing, and supplies in a mission that would launch America’s first full-blown humanitarian relief effort.

Captain Robert Bennet Forbes and the crew of the USS Jamestown embarked on a voyage that began a massive eighteen-month demonstration of soaring goodwill against the backdrop of unfathomable despair—one nation’s struggle to survive, and another’s effort to provide a lifeline.

The Jamestown mission captured hearts and minds on both sides of the Atlantic, of the wealthy and the hardscrabble poor, of poets and politicians.

As Puleo writes, “Prior to 1847, the bulk of interaction between nation-states consisted mainly of warfare and other hostilities, mixed with occasional trade; the entire concept of international charity existed neither in the moral consciousness nor as part of the political strategy of monarchs or elected leaders. If anything, such a gesture toward a foreign nation would likely have been viewed as a sign of weakness.”

Forbes’ undertaking inspired a nationwide outpouring of relief that was unprecedented in size and scope, the first instance of an entire nation extending a hand to a foreign neighbor for purely humanitarian reasons. It showed the world that national generosity and brotherhood were not signs of weakness, but displays of quiet strength and moral certitude.

With the Jamestown’s departure from Boston on March 28, 1847, the floodgates opened wide. As spring bloomed and temperatures warmed, as frozen canals thawed and snowdrifts melted from rutted wagon trails and dirt-packed roadways and clogged railroad beds, most communities in the United States, large cities and tiny frontier towns, shifted into action.

They set aside religious, racial, social, economic, and political differences to collaborate on an unprecedented countrywide demonstration of voluntary philanthropy on behalf of Ireland. The plight of a ravaged foreign country and its desperate people pierced America’s hardest hearts and opened its most obdurate minds; the desire to relieve Ireland’s suffering touched Americans of every stripe—rich and poor, men and women, from all backgrounds and religions and ages and races, from north and south, from the coast and the interior.

Through July 4, 1848, fifteen months after the assistance began, Americans donated a massive amount of food, more than 9,900 tons, to sustain Ireland. They sent barrel upon barrel of corn, peas, wheat, meal, flour, rice, biscuits, oats, oatmeal, barley, rye, bread, breadstuffs, hominy, hops, beans, arrowroot, vinegar, pork, bacon, beef, ham, venison, dried peaches, dried fish, and—yes—potatoes. And beyond that, Americans donated nearly 650 crates of clothing that they had sewn and tailored by hand, as well as supplies such as soap, candles, hats, eating implements, pots and pans, and other sundries.

The humanitarian transatlantic convoy from the United States that began with Jamestown’s unprecedented voyage did not stop for all of 1847, during which 114 ships from U.S. ports delivered food, clothing, and provisions to starving Ireland. U.S. citizens shipped so much grain to Ireland that corn prices dropped on the British market, which further (though only marginally) assisted the poor Irish as the year went along.  American ships sailed with their precious cargo into the Irish ports of Belfast, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Limerick, Londonderry, Sligo, and Waterford, and also to Liverpool, England, from which food and supplies were distributed to Ireland and Scotland.

Voyage of Mercy tells the incredible story of the famine, the Jamestown voyage, and the commitment of thousands of ordinary Americans to offer relief to Ireland, a groundswell that provided the collaborative blueprint for future relief efforts, and established the United States as the leader in international aid.

The USS Jamestown’s heroic voyage showed how the ramifications of a single decision can be measured not in days, but in decades – a story of generosity and soaring goodwill amidst unfathomable despair.

 

Reviews

Kirkus Reviews: “An uplifting historical account of humanitarianism with lessons in this increasingly isolationist time”

Kirkus Reviews, one of the preeminent reviewers in the book industry, offered a favorable pre-publication review of Voyage of Mercy. Kirkus said Steve’s seventh book “focuses on a remarkable event in 1847 to illuminate a broader discussion about U.S. aid to other nations.” The review added: “The author effectively shows how ‘the events of 1847 have served as the blueprint and inspiration for hundreds of American charitable relief efforts since, philanthropic endeavors that have established the United States as the leader in international aid in total dollars.’ An uplifting historical account of humanitarianism with lessons in this increasingly isolationist time.”

Read the full Kirkus review here:

https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/stephen-puleo/voyage-of-mercy/

Booklist gives Voyage of Mercy a “starred review”

Voyage of Mercy received a “starred review” from Booklist, a publication of the American Library Association that provides critical reviews of books; its primary audience consists of libraries, educators, and booksellers. The Booklist star indicates an outstanding title of a particular genre. As Booklist said:

“The American impulse to do humanitarian good dates back almost two centuries to the 1847 sailing of the USS Jamestown. Congress ordered this warship’s guns removed, transferred the three-masted vessel into private hands, loaded it with food and clothing, and sent it from Boston to Cork, Ireland for relief from the devastation of the Irish potato famine. Puleo (American Treasures, 2016) makes this history compelling, and tells further American aid stories across the decades through the Berlin Airlift of 1948. Puleo’s deep research is evident in an erudite bibliographic essay.”

Other Authors offer praise for Voyage of Mercy

Voyage of Mercy is a fascinating and moving tale of America as we wish it would always be—kind, generous, and humane to people who are in dire need of help, wherever they may live. Puleo is a master storyteller who seamlessly weaves together the personal and the political in this enthralling narrative of the United States’ philanthropic and humanitarian roots. In today’s fractious and divisive world, this book is a tonic to the soul, and a potent reminder that we are at our best when we follow the ‘better angels of our nature’.” 

  • Eric Jay Dolin, author of Black Flags, Blue Waters and Leviathan

“Voyage of Mercy is why we read. It’s history as it should be written. It reads like a terrific, page-turning novel, with characters who live and breathe and struggle and yearn, with grand dramatic moments, with settings so vividly described in a world so impeccably researched that you think you’re there, with powerful themes that will resonate long after you’ve finished reading. It’s Stephen Puleo’s best book and a voyage that every reader should take.”

  • William Martin, New York Times bestselling author of Back Bay and Bound for Gold

Voyage of Mercy Reviews from Goodreads

Read if you: Think a heartbreaking, moving, and inspirational account of the Irish famine and the USA’s first major international humanitarian program sounds up your alley. Ireland’s potato famine changed Ireland and the United States forever. Not just in terms of the many lives lost, but also in terms of the massive immigration of Irish men and women to the United States (where they faced enormous prejudices), the deepening of Ireland’s hatred of England, and the mobilization of the United States’s first international aid program, which became a blueprint of sorts for later massive aid programs, including the food drops in Berlin shortly after World War II. This is almost unbearably sad at times (particularly with Captain Forbes’s many personal losses), but you will remember this long after finishing it.

Voyage of Mercy is a non-fiction accounting of the humanitarian aid the US sent to Ireland during the famine in 1846. Mr. Puleo has pored through historical documents to bring us this bittersweet story. He introduces us to the key players, with plenty of background of who they were, why they took the actions they did, and we get a view of their lives. He has the facts and figures which he presents in a way that is interesting and furthers the story…Many Americans can be proud of how our ancestors responded [to the Irish famine]. The USS Jamestown was a retrofitted battleship on the first international humanitarian mission. People from across the US gave food, money, clothing and other supplies to be taken to Ireland in the hopes that it would relieve suffering. Up to this point, such action was seen as weak, but these people didn’t care, they knew they lived in a bountiful land, and wanted to save lives. Thanks to #NetGalley for allowing me to review #VoyageofMercy and give my honest opinion, it was a very good book!!

With meticulous research, documentation, and presentation the author presents the conditions of that harsh winter of 1847-48 with no food, no heat, no roof, scant clothing or shoes, and precious little hope…There is incredible detailing of the life histories of the major players and a whole lot more, but the undercurrent is the need by individuals in the US to do whatever they can whenever they feel that they can make a difference, regardless of nationality.

Excerpts

Sheets of cold rain lashed the decks of the USS Jamestown and gale-force winds battered the three-masted American sloop of war through the swells of the North Atlantic. Captain Robert Bennet Forbes barked orders as his energetic but inexperienced crew scrambled to haul up the mainsail, a daunting task on this moonless night of raging seas on April 2, 1847. Weak light leaked from deck lanterns, but beyond the ship’s raised prow and forward riggings, the darkness was total — “black as Erebus,” as Forbes described it in the captain’s log, referring to the mythological netherworld that serves as the passageway to Hades.

For the sixth straight day since leaving the Charlestown Navy Yard, the ship and its crew were pounded by miserable weather as they fought their way toward Ireland. Snow, sleet, hail, and cold rendered all ropes “stiff as crowbars . . . and the men also,” and wind and waves left the Jamestown, despite her solid oak frame, “bounding like an antelope” and unable to carry as much sail as Forbes wished. Dense wet fog rendered visibility to near zero. Snow slickened the ship’s decks, crew members lurched with seasickness, ice floes hampered passage, and worst of all, the Jamestown leaked badly, at times taking on as much as ten inches of water an hour. Most of the water poured through the rudder case in the wardroom when the sea rose aft or the ship settled. Crew members were forced to pump often and, finally, bore holes in the wardroom deck to allow water to run off into the hold.

As midnight approached, the wind howled and every rope froze “as hard and stiff as January,” but Forbes, a Bostonian who in his forty-two years had savored much joy and endured deep sorrow, remained unflappable in the captain’s chair, determined to reach his destination ahead of schedule, and resolute in the righteousness of his mission.

Captain Forbes and his crew were delivering tons of donated food to Ireland during the terrible famine year of 1847. The Jamestown’s transatlantic passage was the most celebrated and highly publicized component of a remarkable and unprecedented relief effort by the United States. It was the first time the US—or any nation, for that matter—extended its hand to a foreign neighbor in such a broad and all-encompassing way for purely humanitarian reasons. Prior to 1847, the bulk of interaction between nation-states consisted mainly of warfare and other hostilities, mixed with occasional trade; the entire concept of international charity existed neither in the moral consciousness nor as part of the political strategy of monarchs or elected leaders. If anything, such a gesture toward a foreign nation would likely have been viewed as a sign of weakness. The American relief effort in 1847 advanced the notion that gestures of philanthropy and brotherhood, rather than signs of a nation’s weakness, were displays of quiet strength and moral certitude.

_______
More than 5,000 ships would leave Ireland during the famine era, carrying passengers who were fleeing utter destitution in their home country. The Jamestown was the first to travel in the opposite direction, laden with food and supplies for Ireland, and its celebrated mission provided the catalyst that injected further momentum into the nationwide American famine-aid movement that had begun in February 1847.

After the Jamestown’s departure from Boston on March 28, the floodgates opened wide. As spring bloomed and temperatures warmed, as frozen canals thawed and snowdrifts melted from rutted wagon trails and dirt-packed roadways and clogged railroad beds, Americans from large cities to tiny frontier towns shifted into action. They set aside their differences to collaborate on an unprecedented countrywide demonstration of voluntary philanthropy on behalf of Ireland. The plight of a ravaged foreign country and its desperate people pierced America’s hardest hearts and opened its most obdurate minds. By July 4, 1848, fifteen months after the assistance had begun, Americans had donated more than 9,900 tons of food to sustain Ireland. They sent barrel upon barrel of corn, peas, wheat, meal, flour, rice, biscuits, oats, oatmeal, barley, rye, bread, breadstuffs, hominy, hops, beans, arrowroot, vinegar, pork, bacon, beef, ham, venison, dried peaches, dried fish, and—yes—potatoes. Beyond that, Americans donated nearly 650 crates of clothing that they had sewn and tailored by hand, as well as supplies such as soap, candles, hats, eating implements, pots and pans, and other sundries.

The wellspring of direct aid from the United States to Ireland became a first-ever national deluge of generosity that shocked the world, and, in many ways, changed it. Never before had the people of one nation offered assistance to those of another on such a grand scale. In 1847, 114 ships from U.S. ports delivered food, clothing, and provisions to starving Ireland. U.S. citizens shipped so much grain to Ireland that corn prices dropped on the British market, which further assisted the poor Irish as the year went along. American ships sailed with their precious cargo into the Irish ports of Belfast, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Limerick, Londonderry, Sligo, and Waterford, and also to Liverpool, England, from which food and supplies were distributed to Ireland and Scotland.

For the Irish, the most enduring symbol of this broad charitable initiative—the one for which they were most grateful—was the mission that started it all, the mission the whole world watched with curiosity and wonder: the voyage of the Jamestown.

Discussion Questions

Did Voyage of Mercy teach you new details of American history?  For example, did you know that Americans contributed in such widespread fashion to Irish famine relief?

What surprised you most about the information you learned in Voyage of Mercy?

Before you read Voyage of Mercy, how much did you know about the Irish potato famine of 1846-47?  Did anything surprise you about the famine?

The two main characters in the book are USS Jamestown captain Robert Bennet Forbes and Irish priest Father Theobald Mathew.  What were your impressions of each man and their actions during the famine?

Sir Charles Trevelyan was the British bureaucrat in charge of the Irish famine relief effort – what were your thoughts about Trevelyan’s actions and the attitude of London in general toward the starving Irish population?

In the book, Puleo discusses the religious and social issues that led to the Irish people’s over- reliance on potatoes.  Did you know of these issues or did they come as a surprise to you?

In his Author’s Note, Puleo marvels at the generosity of Americans in 1847-48, especially the fact that they contributed food that they had planted, cultivated, and harvested to feed their families.  How do you think you would have reacted at the time?  Would you do the same today?

In addition to kicking off America’s first humanitarian mission, the voyage of the Jamestown also established a public-private partnership model that America has used since to provide aid to victims of famine, natural disasters, and other hardships.  Were you surprised to learn this?  Were you surprised to learn that – before the American relief effort to Ireland in 1847 – nations did not provide humanitarian aid to the citizens of other nations?

Voyage of Mercy discusses in detail the legacy of the famine – how it soured and even poisoned Irish-British relations for 175 years, how it influenced Irish culture, and how it generally resulted in positive U.S.-Irish relations.  Did any part of this story surprise you?  For example, did you know that Ireland maintained its neutrality during World War II so it would not have to ally itself with England, a decision that harkened back to the English handling of the Great Famine?

If you’re of Irish heritage, is the famine mentioned in your family lore or history?  If you’re not of Irish heritage, do you have friends or relatives who know and talk about the famine and its central role in Irish history?

Have you read other books by Stephen Puleo?  If so, how does Voyage of Mercy compare in terms of writing quality and storytelling?    If not, would you be inclined to read another Puleo book?

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